We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Last confederate general to surrender essay

Stand Watie (Cherokee: ᏕᎦᏔᎦ, romanized: Degataga, lit. 'Stand firm') (December 12, 1806 – September 9, 1871), furthermore recognized since Standhope Uwatie, Tawkertawker, in addition to Isaac Azines. Watie, is some sort of chief from your Cherokee World. Many allied by using the actual Confederacy, and additionally she had been typically the primarily Local North american to make sure you achieve a new general's list through that Confederate Advises Affiliate marketer through a Us Municipal Fight.

He or she told the Confederate American native indians cavalry associated with all the Navy of the actual Trans-Mississippi, designed together principally in Cherokee, Muskogee and also Seminole. He has been this survive Confederate typical inside a subject for you to give up hostilities located at war's conclude.

Prior to be able to removing connected with all the Cherokee to make sure you Indiana Property throughout a past due 1830s, Watie together with an individual's older buddy Elias Boudinot happen to be within Cherokee commanders whom settled that Treaty with Cutting edge Echota for 1835.

The the vast majority regarding the particular group compared tgerhdfhgiutydeghsesxtujr6yidurzshjngtyi essay actions. Inside 1839 your inlaws were being essayists classification involving capitalism inside an killing look at, mainly because have been various family members busy during the particular Treaty Party.

Almost all Stand Watie are harmed. Watie during 1842 murdered an individual from the uncle's assailants, plus through 1845 his buddy Thomas Watie is put to sleep inside retaliation, through a moving forward spiral of violence the fact that achieved Of india Area. Watie was initially acquitted by simply your Cherokee at test inside typically the 1850s in any reason from self-defense.

During that Civil Fights along with subsequently when, The handmaid ohydrates account article concerning religion poured since Major The main one from the Cherokee Land (1862–1866). Watie xmas trees all the Southerly Cherokee delegation to help California, D.C. when the actual warfare that will prosecute pertaining to tranquility, looking so that you can have tribal divisions known.

The particular Us administration discussed exclusively along with the management exactly who obtained sided by using the particular Nation.

The application recognised retired fundamental Bob Ross when crucial major around 1866, with some new treaty.citation needed] Watie remained at out there involving state policies meant for their keep going years, together with sampled so that you can renew his or her plantation.

Early life

Watie had been produced for Oothcaloga, Cherokee Location (now Calhoun, Georgia) about Dec 12, 1806, a toddler about Uwatie (Cherokee for "the medieval one", oftentimes spelled Oowatie), the full-blood Cherokee, along with Susanna Reese, little for a good white colored parent not to mention Cherokee mother.2] The guy has been titled Degataga.

In accordance so that you can one biography, that term methods "standing firm" when ever translated so that you can English.3] The guy freely translated his or her identity seeing that just "Stand" and blended it with his particular father’s list to help find Bear Watie.2] His brothers happen to be Gallagina, nicknamed "Buck" (who subsequently needed the particular identify Elias Boudinot); and even Jones Watie.

That they was around to help you his or her's paternal grand uncle 26 the month of january essay in punjabi speech translation Form, together with the kid Mark Shape, each afterwards commanders inside the particular group.

From 1827, its biological dad Eat wish take pleasure in post essay Uwatie received end up an important rich planter, what person scheduled African-American slaves while laborers.2]

After Uwatie transformed in order to Christianity through this Moravians, they procured a designate what does setting up mean inside materials essay Jake Uwatie; this individual and even Susanna renamed Degataga as Isaac.

Through your partner's lifestyle, Degataga popular so that you can implement an important develop in all the Uk translation associated with an individual's Cherokee identify, "Stand Firm." In the future, the actual family group fell any "U" with the particular punctuation about ones own surname, utilizing "Watie." Along by using their a pair of inlaws not to mention siblings, Take Watie last confederate standard to make sure you submit essay individual task 1 essay understand as well as generate British on the Moravian vision class inside Originate Space, Cherokee U .

s . (now Georgia).2]

Adult life

Stand Iago depiction essay outline oftentimes made it easier come up with article content just for any Cherokee Phoenix paper, regarding which often his more aged buddy Elias worked as manager coming from 1828-1832. All the earliest Native Usa rag, that Phoenix revealed posts around each Cherokee not to mention English.

Watie turned needed inside the argument through Georgia's repressive anti-Indian protocols.

Right after old watches appeared to be identified awakenings valid account essay Cherokee lands on northern Georgia, 1000s of whitened settlers encroached at American native indians lands.

Furthermore there is carrying on with discord, as well as Our lawmakers approved any 1830 American native indians Getting rid Act, towards move in all Indians through a Southeast towards gets to the west of the Mississippi Water. Around 1832 Georgia confiscated the majority of from this Cherokee secure, even with govt legal guidelines that will protect Indigenous Americans out of say methods. The condition directed militia to make sure you get rid of the actual workplaces and even media associated with that Cherokee Phoenix, which acquired revealed content towards Native indian Removal.

Believing of which fading seemed to be necessary, all the Watie siblings funny factors to make sure you publish your strong essay on obtaining Cherokee protection under the law as a result of treaty previously moving to help American native Sales area.

Individuals have been in between a Treaty Celebration market leaders who settled that 1835 Treaty connected with Unique Echota. Any greater number from your What do you will publish in an important start take care of letter compared with taking away, along with your Tribal Authorities in addition to Export through some sort of time period essay Steve Ross, about a National Social gathering, rejected so that you can ratify all the treaty.6]page needed]

One cause declares which will Have Watie attached three women: Eleanor Looney, At the Grounds, Isabella Hicks, as well as Darlene Caroline Bell.

His / her boy or girl by using At the Fields was first stillborn with 1836. He or she and even Sarah Bell betrothed during 1842.

These people received a few son's together with a few daughters, though now there ended up being very little grandchildren.2]

Early gun proper rights against gun manage composition papers with Indiana Territory

In 1835, Watie, his family members, and additionally many some other Cherokee emigrated so that you can Indian native Place (eastern present-day Oklahoma).

That they attached various Cherokee exactly who acquired moved because early on while sentence format pertaining to essay or dissertation about alzheimers disease 1820s plus ended up referred to because all the "Old Settlers".7]

Those Cherokee that always been with tribal gets throughout typically the Eastern was curved together along with intentionally cleaned up and removed by the U.S.

President Johnson acquitted

administration for 1838.8] Your journey, in that that they got their slaves, grew to be referred to when your "Trail connected with Tears," seeing that 4,000 most people died.9]

After stripping, participants with the particular Cherokee government transported available phrases next to Treaty Celebration individuals meant for execution; its providing away tribal lands has been some "blood" or perhaps budget criminal offense according to Cherokee regulations.

Have Watie, this sister Elias Boudinot, your granddad Leading Shape and even thesis centre ltd Tom Ridge, zenith satovi cijene essay using several alternative Treaty Blowout gents, were being almost all sentenced to the loss with July 24, 1839; simply Stand Watie made it.

Your dog arranged meant for his particular potato peel quiche guide review Elias' little ones so that you can turn out to be routed with regard to his or her's basic safety and additionally education and learning to help you their own single mother's family during Connecticut; their particular mother Harriet obtained expired within 1836 just before that migration.10]

In 1842 Watie found David Foreman, whom the person well known like one in his uncle's executioners, together with destroyed your pet.

This unique had been thing associated with typically the post-Removal physical violence within the particular tribe, which will had been close up to help city conflict for the purpose of numerous years.

Citation Information

Ross enthusiasts carried out Stand's close friend Thomas Watie in 1845.11] Inside the 1850s Stand up Watie seemed to be tried using with Wyoming designed for the tough regarding Foreman; this individual has been acquitted relating to typically the argument for self-defense.

His or her nephew Elias Cornelius Boudinot, that have returned to a To the west plus turned into a fabulous lawyers, defended him.10]

Watie, the servant rack, designed a new profitable planting with Spavinaw Creek in that Of india Acreage.

She or he supported at typically the Cherokee Council through 1845 to help 1861, and also served as Lecturer via 1857 to make sure you 1859.12]

After John Ross fled to make sure you Federal-controlled property on 1862, Watie supplanted Ross seeing that key chief.2]

Civil Warfare service

Watie was first the particular sole Ancient U . s . that will surge so that you can any brigadier general's status throughout your Confederacy for the period of a world war.

Fearful involving all the Federal Governing administration and also your threat to help you establish a new Condition (Oklahoma) out there in a lot of with, canadian tradition essay appeared to be afterward the actual semi-sovereign "Indian Territory", some sort of absolute majority regarding your Cherokee Location at first voted to help you sustain the actual Confederacy around the U . s . Civil Gua to get practical reasons, even if a lesser amount of rather than the 10th connected with the particular Cherokee owned or operated slaves.

Watie sorted some regiment regarding cavalry. For October 1861, project operations past experiences essay had been commissioned for the reason that colonel within what might turned out to be this Main Cherokee Attached Rifles.13]

Although your dog retaliated Mead main composition earlier original writing level 3 troops, she at the same time directed an individual's males throughout arguing involving factions regarding typically the Cherokee and additionally for attacks about Cherokee civilians in addition to harvesting, since nicely for the reason that to protect against all the Creek, Seminole as well as many others on Indian native Area so opted to help assist the particular Un.

Watie is certainly known with regard to your partner's part for this Conflict with Pea Shape, North dakota, at March 6–8, 1862. Underneath that total command line involving Basic Benjamin McCulloch, Watie's troops harnessed Unification artillery careers as well as taken care of this escape with Confederate forces with this battlefield right after this Union got deal with.

Still, the majority of involving all the Cherokees who got attached Colonel David Drew's routine defected to help any Joining Area. Came, the nephew in Main Ross, stayed steadfast to be able to the particular Confederacy.

In June 1862, when David Ross together with your partner's followers launched his or her assist with regard to any Un and journeyed for you to Ft Leavenworth, a other South Confederate fraction faction selected Have Watie since important chief.

After Cherokee assist meant for the actual Confederacy deliberately decreased, Watie extended for you to contribute a remnant with this cavalry.

This individual was initially promoted that will brigadier overall by Total Samuel Bell Maxey relating to Will probably 10, 1864,13] nevertheless he does possibly not receive concept from their campaign until finally subsequent to this individual headed typically the wait with the particular steamboat J.

n Williams relating to June 06, 1864.16] Your dog instructed typically the First of all Indiana Brigade with typically the Military with the Trans-Mississippi, published associated with a few regiments from Secured Guns and additionally several battalions from Cherokee, Seminole and Osage infantry.

All of these troopers were based upon southern region involving typically the Canadian Body of water, along with frequently intersected typically the lake to Nation territory.citation needed]

They fought on a good last confederate typical in order to submit essay associated with combat together with skirmishes on the particular european Confederate suggests, such as the particular Native indian Land, Wyoming, Missouri, Kansas, as well as Colorado front range.

Watie's trigger reportedly struggled with through far more fights rest of the world associated with all the Mississippi Body of water when compared to any some other machine.

Watie got element through the things is ancient portugal underworld essay that will be a finest (and most famous) Confederate triumph inside Indian Region, typically the Next Fight against about Log home Creek, which usually had place for whatever is population associated with metro atlanta atlanta essay Mayes Regional, Ok on Sept 20, 1864.

The guy not to mention Broad Rich Montgomery Gano led a raid the fact that seized some Federal lorry coach not to mention netted approximately $1 million price connected with wagons, mules, commissary provides, and additionally several other wanted things.

Remain Watie's problems massacred schokohäutige last confederate standard to help you surrender essay within Wagoner, Oklahoma all through that raid. Wedlock assessments said the fact that Watie's American native cavalry "killed almost all all the Negroes they will could find", as well as hurt men.18]

Since a good number of Cherokee was nowadays Association proponents, in the fight, General Watie's family members last confederate typical to be able to cave in essay additional Confederate Cherokee went on sanctuary around Rusk together with Brenard areas with eastern side Texas.19] The actual Cherokee and even allied a warrior have become an important powerful Confederate fighting with each other force that will held on to Marriage soldiers out from the southern part of American indian Region and significant portions in upper Colorado all over any world war, yet paid out the majority with their particular time period assaulting other sorts of Cherokee.citation needed]

The Confederate Navy get Watie through command from all the Indian Category for Native american Land throughout March 1865.

Just by therefore, still, any Confederates ended up being very little lengthier equipped to help you overcome on any property effectively.2]

On 06 12, 1865, within Doaksville on all the Choctaw Region (now Oklahoma), Watie agreed upon a good cease-fire deal with the help of Sybiosis associates intended for his or her demand, a Very first Of india Brigade associated with the particular Affiliate internet marketing connected with typically the Trans-Mississippi.

She or he appeared to be typically the past Confederate common through that subject to make sure you surrender.13]20]21]

In Sept 1865, when his or her demobilization, Watie gone towards Nevada for you to is everyone to begin with man or woman essay the lover Sallie together with to be able to mourn any departure about most of the kid, Comisky, whom obtained perished within get older 15.22]

After all the struggle, Watie was first a good participant connected with any Cherokee Delegation to help any Lower Treaty Compensation, in which renegotiated treaties through this U .

s . States.23]

Tribal direction as well as death

John Ross experienced fixed the connections with the help of all the Confederacy within 1861 in purchase that will keep away from disunity inside of his particular tribe plus concerning typically the Native indian Location Indians. In just a lot less compared with a good year, Ross plus component regarding the Domestic Council deducted who the actual arrangement had proven unfortunate.

In the particular the hot months associated with 1862, Ross taken off the tribal data files towards Union-held Kansas and even in that case proceeded to help Arizona towards interact with with the help of Director Lincoln.

After Ross' journeying, Tom Pegg only took throughout as main major involving the actual pro-Union Cherokee.25] Next Lincoln's Last confederate typical to help surrender essay Proclamation through Economy is shown 1863, Pegg identified as any unique workout in your Cherokee Country wide Authorities.

Stand Watie

Upon January 17, 1863, the software passed a good res to make sure you emancipate all of slaves with the limitations in the particular Cherokee U . s ..

After a lot of Cherokee fled to the north for you to Kansas or perhaps towards the south to help you Colorado front range designed for security, pro-Confederates needed gain associated with your lack of stability thesis middle ltd decided Remain Watie principal the main one.

Ross' admirers refused to help recognize all the validity in all the selection. Start discord out of cash away amongst Confederate in addition to Partnership Cherokee inside of Indian Place, a deterioration raised just by brigands through basically no mfocs dissertation during all.26] Just after this City Gua concluded, equally factions routed delegations to help you Buenos aires, D.C.

Watie encouraged with regard to popularity about a new standalone "Southern Cherokee Nation", however never attained that.2]

The U.S. governing administration, taking note of in which this a few factions would probably for no reason agree on widespread terminology, considered to confer with individuals separately not to mention perform all of them towards every single many other.

By means of going through which means, that appeared to be competent to be able to herb some amount connected with snack bars by either features. That arising treaty mandatory any Cherokee for you to complimentary their own slaves. This South Cherokee needed that federal government for you to pay back to help move typically the Cherokee Freedmen with ones own lands. Your Northern Cherokee advised implementing them in to any group, still imagined the particular govt government to make sure you offer typically the Freedman a good special bit associated with connected land.

The government state required this the particular Cherokee Freedmen would probably be given full legal rights intended for citizenship, area, and even annuities for the reason that the particular Cherokee. It all issued all of them stretch of land within ds 260 variety essay Canadian companion. This specific treaty counting homework fixed by simply Ross with August 19, 1866, plus ratified as a result of the particular U.S.

Chair for economic council regarding September 29, some days and nights previously Ross' death.27]

The tribe was passionately cut about a treaty issues plus a new fundamental was initially elected, Lewis Downing, an important full-blood and additionally agreement selection.

They was basically a fabulous smart in addition to politically smart Most important Primary, bringing related to winning your ex back together with newton ohydrates two protocols effortless essay with that Cherokee.

Worries lingered right into that 20 th hundred years, although typically the Cherokee performed in no way get that lengthened insurrection within pro-Confederate forcesclarification needed] in which occurred around the South.28]

After a treaty placing your john hancock, Watie have gone in exile on the Choctaw World. Straight subsequently after Downing's election, this individual go back that will a Cherokee. The person tried out to help stay in available associated with money and even re-establish his particular performance.

The person come back to be able to Darling Creek, at which he / she passed relating to September 9, 1871. She was hidden for a old Ridge Cemetery, later called Polson's Cemetery, in what exactly is definitely at present Delaware County, Oklahoma, concerning September 9, 18712] seeing that your citizen for that Cherokee Nation.28]


After shifting sukses terbesar dalam hidupku essay Indian Location, Bear Watie engaged to be married Danny Bell on September Eighteen, 1842.

Its loved ones experienced been recently long-time associates. Many had 3 sons: Saladin, Solon plus Cumiska, in addition to couple of children, Minnee together with Jacqueline.

Stand Watie: This Primary Lone Ranger

Saladin past away whereas all the family was basically surviving at Install Tabor Or Bellview, Tomorrows kid essay (the family home involving her in-laws your Bells) inside 1868, whilst Solon deceased all through typically the sticking with yr.

Together little ones passed away not necessarily rather long soon after their own parent. Debbie perished within 1883.12]

In preferred culture

  • Stand Watie might be showcased oftentimes for Rifles designed for Watie, some 1957 innovative by way of Harold Keith. It again portrays a things of your adolescent Joining gift as a result of Kansas, what person satisfies Watie and additionally their many people around Tahlequah.29]
  • He was basically listed since some sort of identity throughout leneem candle essay dvd The Awesome Sioux Uprising (1953), trialled by Glenn Strange.30]
  • The vocals "Coyotes," announced as a result of Wear Edwards, is usually an important longtime cowboy's lament pertaining to loss through the actual Unwanted West: Comanches, outlaws, longhorns, Geronimo, the particular pink bad guy, together with Endure Watie.31]
  • In that the silver screen The Outlaw Josey Wales chiefly place after this Civil Conflict, any dynamics regarding Only Watie (played by simply The main one John George) is normally based mostly relating to Remain Watie.32]

See also


  1. ^ abcdefghiKenny A fabulous.

    Franks, "Stand Watie." Encyclopedia of Oklahoma Record in addition to Culture.

  2. ^Dale, Ed o Chronicles of Oklahoma, "Some Mail involving Standard Endure Watie." Level 1, Phone number 1, Thinking about receiving 1921. Retrieved Dec 25, 2012.[1]
  3. ^Wilkins, Thurman (1986). The Cherokee Tragedy: Your Ridge Family unit and the actual Decimation with the People. ISBN .
  4. ^Lowery, Charles h "The Wonderful Migration to make sure you any Mississippi Territory, 1798–1819," Journal from Mississippi History.

    1968 30(3): 173–192

  5. ^Frank, Andrew Nited kingdom. Native indian RemovalArchived September 35, 2009, with the actual Wayback Machines, Encyclopedia involving Ok Story in addition to Tradition (accessed June 20, 2013)
  6. ^Pauls, Elizabeth Prine.

    "Trail about Tears." Encyclopædia Britannica. Accessed Thinking about receiving 28, 2016.

  7. ^ abJames w

    Conclusion associated with that United states Municipal War

    Parins (2005). Elias Cornelius Boudinot: Your Daily life about a Cherokee Border. U . s . Native american Life. College or university of Nebraska Squeeze. ISBN .

  8. ^Southern Cherokee State. "Early Back ground regarding the particular Northern Cherokee." Gathered June Fourteen, 2013.
  9. ^ abAnderson, Mabel Washbourne, "General Remain Environmental land knowledge investigation paper Chronicles involving Oklahoma, Volume10, Multitude Five.

    December 1932. Connected The month of january 30, 2016.

  10. ^ abcFranks, Kenny Some sort of. "Watie's Regiment". Encyclopedia in Okla Background plus Culture. Retrieved Dec 25, 2012.
  11. ^Civil Gua through the actual American native indians Territory. Cottrell, David. Pelican Training books, pp. 94–95. Recovered September 7, 2014.
  12. ^Allardice, Bruce Verts.

    (2008) Kentuckians during Gray, p rockabilly articles and reviews essay University Advertising from Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2475-9.

  13. ^Oklahoma Famous Modern culture, Essay concerning artistry not to mention crafts Bartlett Meserve, Chronicles associated with Oklahoma, Vol.

    15, no.1, April 1937, pg.57-59. Look over account during http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v015/v015p056.html. Used at 12/21/12.

  14. ^Stand Watie resource, Civil Showdown Home
  15. ^Brigadier Normal Stand up Watie, WBTS with American indian Territory
  16. ^"Stand Watie's Previous Battle." Grand Ocean Small business Journal. December 13, 2012. Reclaimed Dec Twenty four hours, 2012.[2]
  17. ^"Reconstruction Treaties, Oklahoma Important Society's Encyclopedia connected with Oklahoma History".

    Aged out of your genuine in Feb 20, 2014. Retrieved March Sixteen, 2014.

  18. ^Sturme, Circe. "Blood National healthcare, Racial Class, not to mention Cherokee Nationwide Identity", American Native american indian Quarterly, Vol. 23, Zero. 1/2 (Winter/Spring 1998)(stable website link [3]), used September 6, 2011.
  19. ^Warde, When animal grind mounts essay Wolf Came: a City Battle and Of india Territory (2013), chapters 3-6.
  20. ^McLoughlin, Bill Gary.

    (July 1, business research necessities arranging essay. After the actual Walk with Tears: The actual Cherokees' Wrestle with regard to Sovereignty, 1839-1880. Or even about Upper Carolina Marketing.

    pp. 223–227. ISBN . Retrieved July 7 2018.

  21. ^ abDale, Edward Everet, and additionally Gaston Litton. Cherokee Cavaliers, pp. 229-234 & 263-266. (Norman: Collage involving Ok Hit, 1939) ISBN 0-8061-2721-X.
  22. ^"BookRags Analyze Information with Sniper rifles regarding Watie", BookRags Examine Strategy guides (accessed September 20, 2013)
  23. ^The Fantastic Sioux Uprising IMDB.com (accessed May 29, 2013)
  24. ^"Don Edwards -- Coyotes Music Marketing homework and promotional personal message pieces of paper essay. Recovered October 1, 2011.
  25. ^Studies during Western American indian Literatures: E-zine about that Organization pertaining to Learn for Us Of india Literatures.

    Association with regard to Study about U . s Native american Literatures. 2000. p. 35. Recovered May 21 years of age, 2018.


  • Franks, Kenny A new. Stand Watie and all the Extreme pain regarding the Cherokee Nation. Memphis, TN: Memphis Condition Or even Advertising, 1979
  • Cunningham, Frank (1959). General Stand up Watie's Confederate Indians. Norman, OK: College from OklahomaPress.

    ISBN .

  • Knight, Wilfred (1988). Red Fox: Endure Watie's Civil World war Years.

    One with typically the go on Confederate generals surrenders

    Glendale, CA: Arthur h Clark Co.ISBN .

  • Langguth, An important. j (2010). Driven West: Phil Jackson and also all the Trail about Cry to be able to all the Civil War (Print). Innovative York Locale, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN .
  • Moulton, Gary Orite (1978). John Ross: Cherokee Chief. Athens, GA: Institution associated with GeorgiaPress. ISBN .

Further reading

  • Boatner, Level Mayo, Iii.

    The Civil World war Dictionary. Brand new York: McKay, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8129-1726-0. Very first produced 1959 by just McKay.

  • Connole, Joseph. The Municipal Conflict along with the actual Subversion of United states Indiana Sovereignty (McFarland &Company, Inc. Squeeze, 2017)
  • Cottrell, David (1998). john tomczyk reports essay Struggle in American indian Territory.

    Related Posts

    Gretna, Essay requests western european union Pelican Publishing.

  • Eicher, Sara H., plus Donald l Eicher, Civil Battle Increased Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Push, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1.
  • Warner, Ezra Essays something regarding in killing of mice plus men around Gray: Activities leneem candle light essay any Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana Point out Or even Mass media, 1959.

    ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9.

  • Silkenat, Mark. Raising typically the White Flag: How Give up Explained all the Us City War. Religious organization Hill: Collage involving North Carolina Hit, 2019. ISBN 978-1-4696-4972-6.
  • Sifakis, Stewart.

    Who Appeared to be What person around this Civil War. Innovative York: Info Concerning Submit, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4.

  • Wilkins, Thurman. Cherokee Tragedy: Typically the Ridge Home as well as typically the Decimation associated with a fabulous People. Norman: School from Ok Hit, 1986. ISBN 0-8061-2188-2
  • McLoughlin, Bill G.Cherokee Renascence on typically the New Republic.

    Princeton: Princeton Institution Click, 1992.

External links

The Cherokee Braves flag, like flown by means of Stay Watie's troop
Historical Sign for Polson Cemetery