Chapter III: Eighteenth Century The english language Literature
BOOKS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT
The 17th century was probably the most stormy periods of English history. The growing contradictions between the fresh class, the bourgeoisie, plus the old causes of feudalism brought about the English Guttersnipe Revolution in the 1640s. As a result of the trend the king was dethroned and beheaded and Great britain was proclaimed a republic. Though soon monarchy was restored, the position of the bourgeoisie had altered.
Those days saw Great Britain rapidly growing in a capitalist country. It was a great age of intensive industrial expansion. New mills and companies appeared one particular after one other. Small towns grew into large urban centers. The industrial revolution began: new machinery was invented that turned Britain into the 1st capitalist power of the world. Although in France the bourgeoisie was simply beginning their struggle against feudalism, the English bourgeoisie had currently become among the ruling classes.
The 18th century was also remarkable pertaining to the development of technology and traditions. Isaac Newton's discoveries in the field of physics, Adam Smith's monetary theories, the philosophical concepts of Hobbes, Locke yet others enriched the materialistic thought and implanted in peoples' minds belief in wonderful powers of man's intellect. It was with this period that English art work began to develop as well: portraiture reached its optimum in the performs of Bill Hogarth, Joshua Reynolds along with Thomas Gainsborough, who was equally good at landscape and face painting.
In spite of the progress of industry and culture in britain, the majority of the English people were even now very ignorant. That is why probably the most important problems that faced the country was the trouble of education.
The 17th and 18th hundreds of years are well-known in the good European culture as the period of Enlightenment. The Enlighteners defended the interests in the common people -- craftsmen, traders, peasants. Their criticism was directed against social inequality, religious hypocrisy as well as the immorality of the upper class. The central problem in the Enlightenment ideology was that of man great nature. The Enlighteners believed in reason along with man's inborn goodness. That they rejected the religious idea of the guilty nature of man. Vice in people, they will thought, was due to the unpleasant life circumstances which could end up being changed by force of reason. They considered that their obligation to enlighten people. to help these groups see the roots of nasty and the ways of social reformation. The Enlighteners also believed in the highly effective educational benefit of art.
In the uk the period of Enlightenment followed the bourgeois revolution. Whilst in other countries that came ahead of the revolution (the French Guttersnipe Revolution took place at the end with the 18th century); therefore , the aims in the English Enlighteners were not so revolutionary while those of The french language Enlightenment.
The English language Enlighteners are not unanimous within their views. Some of them spoke in defence of the existing order, considering that a couple of reforms were enough to improve it. They were the moderates, symbolized in literature by Daniel Defoe, Paul Addison, Rich Steele, and Samuel Richardson. Others, the radicals, wanted more democracy in the judgment of the nation. They looked after the passions of the exploited masses. One of the most outstanding staff of the radicals were Jonathan Swift, Holly Fielding, Oliver Goldsmith. Richard B. Sheridan.
Inside the epoch of Enlightenment the poetic kinds of the Renaissance were replaced by prose. The moralizing novel was created and became the leading genre in the period. The rest of us, mostly representatives of the middle-class, became the main characters of the novels. These characters, possibly virtuous or perhaps vicious, had been accordingly, possibly rewarded or perhaps punished at the end of the new. By these kinds of means the...
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